Search Glossary


Ad Hoc Research:

Research that is specifically designed to address a particular problem or issue. Ad hoc research is usually conducted when there is insufficient existing information. Ad hoc projects are usually single pieces of research rather than part of a continuous programme.

Ad Recall:

This measures a respondent’s recollection or recall of an advertisement. The respondent’s answers provide insight to the most memorable attribute of the advertisement. Generally, ad recall is requested immediately after the respondent views the advertisement. Recall is lessened over time.

Advertising Related Research:

Research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. It may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising. It can entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other perspectives.

Aided Awareness / Prompted Recall / (aka Prompted Awareness):

Is the percentage of respondents who claim to have seen something (e.g. a brand or an advertisement) after having been shown some form of stimulus material.


How people feel about certain products, ideas or companies.

Attitude, Awareness & Usage (AAU) Survey: (Attitude Research- Survey):

A research study to obtain information on how people feel about certain products, ideas or companies.


Involves concealing respondents’ identities from interviewers and/or researchers.


A general term that is used to represent or summarise the relevant features of a set of values. The arithmetic mean is often used as a measure of average, but the median and the mode can also be used to summarise a set of values.


A measure of respondents’ knowledge of an object or an idea. There are two main measures of awareness: spontaneous (or unaided) and prompted (or aided) awareness.



Is the required number of interviews to be completed.

Base Line (aka Bench Mark or Pre-wave):

Is the result of a study conducted to obtain a snapshot or reading of current conditions prior to some change in market conditions or the introduction of some test conditions. The result is then used as a standard for comparison with subsequent studies.

Boost Sample:

A booster sample allows you to focus on a small subgroup that wouldn't normally be adequately represented in a main survey, without the expense of increasing the sample size for all of the main survey.

Brand Equity:

A term developed to describe the financial value of a brand to the bottom line profit of a business.

Brand Share:

Is the percentage of sales of a specific product category that are accounted for by one brand. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units sold.

Brand Loyalty:

Is a general term used to describe the extent to which consumers buy or use a brand in preference to other brands. In practice consumers often buy or use several brands, therefore brand loyalty is a relative measure.

Buying Intention:

A technique used to measure the level of which a participant intents to buy a particular product.

Buying Rate (aka Volume per buyer):

Is the average volume purchased per buyer over the period of an analysis.


Call-back (aka Recall Interview):

Is a repeat telephone call to a potential respondent to see if they can participate in a survey.

Campaign Test:

Campaigns tested have included TV, radio, press, poster, direct mail, sponsorship, branch advertising and recruitment. The addition of a media planning tool to this testing approach allows advertisers to test the whole campaign, creative and media, and measures the synergies expected with an integrated campaign


Computer-Aided Personal Interviewing
Responses in a personal interview are keyed directly into a computer, laptop or tablet and the administration of the interview is managed by a specifically designed programme. The programme checks for invalid responses and will not accept responses outside prescribed limits, hence subsequent editing and keying in of data is avoided.


Computer-Aided Telephone Interviewing
Responses are keyed directly into a computer and administration of the interview is managed by a specifically designed programme. The programme checks for invalid responses and will not accept responses outside prescribed limits, hence subsequent editing and keying in of data is avoided.


The collection of data from all available units in a population of interest.


A list of items to be examined or things to be done. For example, a supervisor may receive a check list with the materials for a job listing the supplies enclosed. A questionnaire may contain a list of items to be checked off by the respondent or the interviewer during the interview.

Churning - Churn:

This is the amount of respondents that leave a panel during a specific time frame.


Are the ultimate consumers of marketing research, they create the demand for research services and pay for the research that is conducted.

Closed-Ended Questions:

Closed-ended questions provide respondents with a pre-determined list of possible answers.

Cluster sampling:

Is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. Then the required information is collected from the elements within each selected group. This may be done for every element in these groups or a subsample of elements may be selected within each of these groups. A common motivation for cluster sampling is to reduce the average cost per interview.

Code of Conduct (or Ethics):

All professional marketing research societies have a code of conduct that details the rights and responsibilities of those involved with marketing and opinion research.


The organizing of responses into categories and the assignment of a unique numerical code to each response prior to data entry.

Collage Technique:

A projective or enabling technique whereby research participants create rough collages from magazines or other visual material to represent something relevant to the research - often a brand, or an activity. This enforced move away from the verbal helps to access intuitive knowledge and may allow access to non-verbal aspects of the topic that would otherwise remain unarticulated and thus open them up to discussion.

Concept Development:

Concept development is a process driven by a set of customer needs and target product specifications, which are then converted into a set of conceptual designs and potential technological solutions. These solutions represent an approximate description of form, working principles, and product features. Often, these concepts are accompanied by industrial design models and experimental prototypes that help in making final selections.

Concept Evaluation:

Concept or conceptualization evaluation is the analysis and evaluation of correlations between situations analysis, strategy and tactics, and PR concept measures. Elements evaluated include baseline data, systematics of the methods, and the comprehensibility of the PR concept in terms of the set objectives. Concept evaluation is designed to explore the quality of the PR concept and is performed before the PR program is implemented.


Refers to the act of not divulging two types of information in a research study. First, confidentiality is maintained when study information such as client name, brand name, purpose of the research, concepts and/or products (except as directed by the study instructions) is only provided to those who have a need to know. Confidentiality also refers to maintaining the privacy of information collected from or about any individual respondent.

Consistency Check:

Involves identifying completed questionnaires with data that are out of the permissible range, logically inconsistent or have extreme values. Data that is out of the range of the coding scheme is inadmissible.

Continuous Research:

Is any research that involves the regular, on-going collection of data.

Copy Test:

A method of determining the degree of understanding, impact, awareness and believability that an ad may generate. Respondents are shown the ad, then they are questioned about their opinions.

Cost per Interview:

Is determined by dividing the total budget for a project by the number of completed interviews.

Customer Satisfaction Surveys:

Studies that aim to determine consumers' opinion of the quality of goods and services offered by a business. They can include qualitative and quantitative research techniques.



Are research facts that are based on respondents’ answers to questions.


Is a centrally held collection of data that allows access and manipulation by one or more users.

Data collection:

The gathering of information (figures, words or responses) that describe some situation from which conclusions can be drawn. The gathering of information from administered questionnaires.

Data Entry:

The act of inputting data into a database.

Data Processing:

The counting and tabulation of raw facts (ie data) into a form that is suitable for future use. This term is usually associated with computer tabulations.

Demographics – Demographic Information:

Based on the age, gender, life-cycle stage, income and occupation of consumers.

Descriptive statistics:

The discipline of quantitatively describing the main features of a collection of data. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics aim to summarize a data set, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the data are thought to represent.

Desk Research:

The systematic examination of all available secondary data in the context of a particular marketing research problem.


A log where facts are recorded relating to a respondent's experiences with a subject or product. Diaries can also be a record of regular purchases or viewing habits and they are often given to respondents when they receive a product to use at home.

Dichotomous Questions:

Are questions with only two alternatives, eg agree/disagree or yes/no.

Discussion Guide:

Is an outline of the subjects to be discussed during group discussions and/or in-depth interviews.

Door-to-Door Survey:

Is a survey where the interviews are conducted in pre-selected areas involving knocking on the doors of homes to find qualified respondents.



ESOMAR stands for European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research which is the world association of research professionals. Founded in 1948 as the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research - ESOMAR unites more than 4,800 members from over 120 countries, both users and providers of opinion and marketing research. ESOMAR's mission is to promote the use of opinion and market research for improving decision-making in business and society world-wide.

Eligibility Criteria:

Are specified characteristics that potential participants must possess in order to be involved in a particular research project.
Eligible Respondent: is a person who meets certain criteria set for a particular study and thus qualifies to be included in the study. Respondents may be qualified on characteristics such as age, income, brand used etc.
Executive Interviews (aka Business-to-Business Interviews): are interviews with business people or experts within a particular field. Executive interviews are often used where the majority of knowledge of a subject is held by a minority of people.

Executive Summary:

A document that summarizes all the sections of a market research report.

Exit Poll:

A survey of opinions, usually social or political. People in a sample are interviewed or reply to a questionnaire. The questions asked usually have a list of possible responses, and the responses are analyzed. The results are usually given as percentages of those expressing an opinion on the particular question.


Family Diary:

Family members that are asked to keep journals on their buying, watching, or listening habits over a period of time.

Feasibility Study:

A feasibility study’s main goal is to assess the economic viability of the proposed business. The feasibility study needs to answer the question: “Does the idea make economic sense?” The study should provide a thorough analysis of the business opportunity, including a look at all the possible roadblocks that may stand in the way of the cooperative’s success. The outcome of the feasibility study will indicate whether or not to proceed with the proposed venture. If the results of the feasibility study are positive, then the cooperative can proceed to develop a business plan.

F2F-Face to Face Interviews:

A type of quantitative research method. Interviews can be conducted in the respondent’s home or workplace, in halls or even simply on the street. In a F2F interview various stimulus material can be used; a print advertisement or photo sequence of an advert, a prompt card with a list of brands or product attributes ,pictures or an actual range of new or existing packaging ,show cards to help explain complicated answer scales.


Is a general term that refers to any data gathering process.

Filter question:

Is a question in a questionnaire to ensure that respondents meet the required criteria for a subsequent question (or questions) in a survey.


Are information that answer a research question

Focus Groups:

A type of qualitative research that consists of an informal discussion of a particular topic with a small number of selected participants (usually 7-9). The discussion is guided by a skilled moderator who does not influence the outcome, but ensures that all the subject areas are discussed by the group and the views of the participants are as clear as possible. The ideal number of participants depends on the subject matter being discussed, eg complex subjects may be better discussed with fewer participants - possibly 4-5.


Grouping of Answers:

Is a group of gathered answers that share tips, tricks, solutions and training for a research marketing group.

Geo-demographic Information:

Is based on a combination of demographics (age, gender, life-cycle stage and occupation) with geographical area.


A statement or other indication of policy or procedure by which to determine a course of action.



Choosing of the same brand over and over again, more due to absence of dissatisfaction than because of a positive loyalty.

Household (H/H):

All persons who occupy a housing unit.

Head of Family / Head H/H:

The member of the household who is responsible for the household having that accommodation, either by owning, renting or having it rent-free. Where two or more people share this responsibility, the researcher should specify who to include in the study.

Holistic Test:

A test that aims to assess participants’ reaction to a product or concept as a whole (in contrast to an atomistic test that examines reactions to the individual elements).


An assumption about certain characteristics of a population. If it specifies values for every parameter of a population, it is called a simple hypothesis; if not, a composite hypothesis. If it attempts to nullify the difference between two sample means (by suggesting that the difference is of no statistical significance), it is called a null hypothesis.


Industrial Survey:

is a marketing research study that focuses on products and services utilized by businesses and manufacturing firms, conducted among respondents employed in such businesses (as opposed to a consumer survey).

Image / Equity:

Equity theory is a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships.

In – Depth Interviews:

A type of qualitative research involving an unstructured personal interview with a single respondent and or pair (couple, etc.), conducted by a highly skilled interviewer. The purpose of in-depth interviews is to understand the underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes and feelings of respondents on a particular subject.

In-street Interview:

Is where participants are asked survey questions face-to-face in the street.


Any form of contact with a respondent in order to collect information for market research purposes.


The person responsible for recruiting participants for a focus group or the person administering a questionnaire.

Interviewee / Respondent:

Any individual or organization from which information is collected for the purposes of a market research project, whether they are aware of it or not, or is approached for interview.

Incentives – Co-operation Fee or Respondent Fee:

A reward given to participants or businesses for taking the time and trouble to co-operate in a marketing research study.


Length of Interview:

Is the time it takes to ask the questions and record the answers in a survey. This time should include any time required to taste products or review concepts etc. Screening time should be shown separately so that accurate completion rates can be calculated.


Is an approach based on strategic management, in which a company focuses on growing and retaining existing customers through incentives. Branding, product marketing and loyalty marketing all form part of the customer proposition – the subjective assessment by the customer of whether to purchase a brand or not based on the integrated combination of the value they receive from each of these marketing disciplines.


Is a term that originally referred to the attitudes, interests and opinions of research participants, but it can be used to refer to differences in behavior that relate to social values.


The property that makes a person likeable that allows them to be liked or to like something.


Mini Group:

A focus group with fewer participants (usually 4-5) than the normal.

Mystery Shopping:

A type of observation study where someone is sent into a business location to act in the role of a customer to evaluate the performance of a business or an employee.

Mystery Calling:

A method of mystery shopping where evaluations are made over the telephone.

Marketing Research:

As defined by the American Marketing Association: The systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing.

Market Share - Brand Share:

The percentage of sales of a specific product category that are accounted for by one brand. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units sold.

Market Segmentation:

The process of taking a market and dividing it by a measurable characteristic (usually demographics) to be able to identify a consumer that is within the target market.
Marge of error:
The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results.


A summary measure of central tendency that is equal to the sum of a set of values divided by the number of values in the data.

Mixed Groups:

A focus group comprised of male and female members.


A description of the way in which the data is collected for part or all of a research project.

Monadic Evaluation – Single Product Test:

A study or part of a study in which the respondents evaluate only one stimulus on its own merits and there is no comparison with other stimuli. The stimulus can be a product, a concept or an advertisement etc.

Multiple Answer:

When more than one answer is acceptable for the same question.


Is someone who leads (but does not influence the outcome of) group discussions and/or in-depth interviews.

Masque Technique:

A projective technique of qualitative research indirect language where you can draw up ideas in the blank mask.

Mean Score:

An average found by summing all observations then dividing the sum by the number of observations.

Media Research:

Research that is centered on issues of media selection and efficiency.

Multistage sampling:

Is a complex form of cluster sampling. Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. Under these circumstances, multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters, the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate.


Name Test:

A research technique used in new product development to identify the best names for a new product or service.

NPS (Net Promoter Score):

Is a management tool that can be used to gauge the loyalty of a firm's customer relationships. It serves as an alternative to traditional customer satisfaction research.


Observation Study:

Is a research study where data is collected by watching consumer behavior or events taking place.


Objectives are the goals or purpose of the research study. The reason why the study is being conducted.

Observation Study:

A research study where data is collected by watching consumer behavior or events taking place.

Open-Ended Questions:

Questions that do not have a set of anticipated responses listed on the questionnaires. The interviewer records the respondent's verbatim response. When the survey is interviewer-administered, the respondent is encouraged to respond completely and freely with the use of probing and clarifying techniques. These questions may also be self-administered.

Opinion Poll:

Is a study that collects views of the public on matters of broad interest.

Omnibus research (Study):

A periodic study that asks questions on a number of unrelated subjects. The results may be completely or partially syndicated among clients.


Panel – Consumer Panel:

A group of selected research participants who have agreed to provide pre-designated information at regular specified intervals over an extended period of time. The information may be on purchasing, media consumption or life-style activities.

Pack Test:

A test that measures consumer reactions to a package or label.


Pen and Paper Interview


Is a general term covering anyone who is involved in a research study and not just someone who is interviewed, e.g. in an observation study or a group discussion.

Personal Diary:

A respondents who is asked to keep journals on their buying, watching, or listening habits over a period of time.

Perceptual Mapping:

Is an analysis technique that is designed to demonstrate how consumers view a concept or brand relative to the alternatives. Perceptual maps can be constructed from different types of analysis, e.g. Factor analysis, correspondence analysis and multi-dimensional scaling.

Pre & Post ad Test: (Pre – Test – Post Test Control Group Design):

A type of true experimental design where test units are randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups are measured before and after the experimental group is exposed to a treatment.


A copy testing measure intended to indicate the motivating ability of an ad, by subtracting the proportion of respondents choosing the test brand prior to ad exposure (or in an unexposed control group) from the proportion choosing it after exposure. It is the net shift in brand choice from unexposed to exposed.

Pilot Questionnaire / Pilot Test – Pre -Testing:

When the questionnaire is tried on a (statistically) small group of respondents to identify any unforeseen problems such as the wording or flow of the questions.

Planetarium Technique:

Projective technique of qualitative research indirect language that represents a model or representation of the solar system.

Psycho – Drama Technique:

a qualitative marketing research technique in which respondents are asked to engage in impromptu role-playing exercises intended to have them reveal their feelings about certain products or brands.

Piegram Technique:

A projective technique of qualitative research indirect language with perceived categorization.

Product Test:

Exposing consumers to a new product, in final or prototype form, so that they might compare it to their usual brand and rate it; the results of product testing will indicate to the company whether further evaluation of the product in test markets is desirable.

Product Related Research:

A look at consumer sensitivity to a range of characteristics for a particular product.

Projective Techniques:

A form of disguised questioning that encourage participants to attribute their feelings, beliefs or motivations to another person, object or situation. Examples of projective techniques are word association, sentence completion and thematic apperception tests.


Is where respondents are made aware of the possible answers to questions by an interviewer either reading them out or showing some material during the research.

Personification Technique:

A projective technique where participants are asked to ascribe “personality-type” traits or characteristics to an object or idea.

Primary Research (Data):

Data that are collected specifically for a current research project.


Is an outline (usually in writing) of how marketing research data could be collected and used to solve a specific problem .Proposals are normally written by research suppliers and they usually are divided into the following sections: background, objectives, methodology, costing and timings.


Quantitative Research (Consumer & Business):

The collection of (statistically) large samples of quantitative data and usually some form of statistical analysis. Quantitative research is often used to substantiate the findings from qualitative research.


A structured technique for collecting data consisting of a series of questions. Questionnaires can be self-completion or administered by an interviewer, they can be completed orally or in writing.

Quota Sample – Purposive Sample:

A type of non-probability sample where the required numbers of units with particular characteristics are specified.

Quali – Quant:

The clearest uptake of newer technology and methods in research is in the growth of hybrid studies. Hybrid studies, involving both qualitative and quantitative elements, are gaining in usage for both reasons of insight (getting beyond the numbers, validating a qualitatively-arrived opportunity) and for budget reasons (using the same respondent for multiple purposes, cutting down on field time.


Role – Playing Technique:

A projective technique where participants are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else.

Rotation (Procedure):

The process of asking questions or showing material to respondents in a different order for every interview according to a set of instructions. This process minimizes the risk of order bias (i.e respondents favoring objects because of their position in a list).

Recruiter / Recruiting:

The inviting of selected participants (who meet specific eligibility criteria) to take part in a research project. The work is undertaken by a field recruiter (often just referred to as a recruiter).


Reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or of a measuring instrument, often used to describe a test.

Random Sample:

A type of probability sample where all units in a population of interest have an equal, known and non-zero chance of being selected.


Any individual or organization carrying out, or acting as a consultant on, a market research project, including those working in client organizations.


Syndicated Research:

Where the findings and costs of a research project are shared (partially or fully) among a number of clients.

Simulation Test:

A model composed of mathematical and logical relationships designed to represent an actual system and indicate how the real system would react in various circumstances.

Spontaneous Recall:

Spontaneous Awareness (aka Unaided Awareness or Unaided Recall)
A measure of how many respondents can quote a brand name without any assistance on behalf of the interviewer.

Situation Analysis:

Is part of the marketing planning process that deals with understanding the environment and the market, (by identifying opportunities and threats) and assessing a firm's competitive position (by identifying its strengths and weaknesses.

Syndicated Research:

Where the findings and costs of a research project are shared (partially or fully) among a number of clients.

Single Answer – Single Response Question:

A question that asks respondents for only one answer.

Sample Size:

The number of sample units to be included in the sample.

Sample Definition:

A description of the ideal (or the intended) sample for a research project.

Socio Economic Class:

(Socio-Economic Groups (aka Social Grades or Social Class) A method of dividing a population of interest into groups usually based on income and occupation of the head of household, although other variables can also be used. The ESOMAR social grades (A, B, C1, C2, D, E1, E2 & E3) are based on the terminal education age and occupation of the main income earner.

Statistical Design:

A type of experimental design that allows for the statistical analysis and control of external variables. Examples of statistical design are: randomized blocks, Latin square and factorial design.

Statistical Efficiency:

Involves a comparison of the sampling errors generated by different sampling procedures. A statistically efficient sampling procedure is one that produces fewer sampling errors for the same sample size than other procedures.

Statistical Significance:

Refers to whether some research results genuinely reflect a population of interest in some way or whether the results could occur by chance. Statistical significance is determined by comparing the research results with the values defined by the confidence interval.

Secondary Research (Data):

Data that have already been collected and published for another research project (other than the one at hand). There are two types of secondary data: internal and external secondary data.

Scale – Rating Scales:

Scales are measurement devices that allow respondents to report the degree of their opinions. Scales are usually in the form of statements or numbers. Pictures may also be used.

Structured Questionnaire (Structured Questions (aka Closed Questions):

Questionnaire containing questions where the choice alternatives for respondents are all specified.


The procedure of asking specific questions to determine whether respondents are eligible to participate in a particular research study. This is done at the very beginning of an interview.

Statistical Significance:

Refers to whether some research results genuinely reflect a population of interest in some way or whether the results could occur by chance. Statistical significance is determined by comparing the research results with the values defined by the confidence interval.

Step by Step Qualitative Research:

A gradual result that cannot be quantified but rather belongs to a category or classification. Marital status, sex, and occupation are examples.


A process using a segment (sample) of a population to represent the entire population’s activities, attitudes, opinions, and interests and the results from the sample study can be inferred upon the population.

Statistical Analyses:

Statistical analysis refers to a collection of methods used to process large amounts of data and report overall trends. Statistical analysis is particularly useful when dealing with noisy data. Statistical analysis provides ways to objectively report on how unusual an event is based on historical data.

Social Research:

Social research is a scientific undertaking which by means of logical methods, aim to discover new facts or old facts and to analyze their sequences, interrelationships, casual explanations and natural laws which govern them

Statistical Deviance:

Deviance is the extreme part of a given statistical distribution, such as a normal curve or percentage distribution.


A supervisor is responsible for the day-to-day performance of a small group. It may be a team, or a shift. The supervisor has experience in what the group does, but is not necessarily better at it than everyone he/she supervises. The supervisor's job is to guide the group toward its goals, see that all members of the team are productive, and resolve problems as they arise.

Stratified sampling:

In statistical surveys, when subpopulations within an overall population vary, it is advantageous to sample each subpopulation (stratum) independently. Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. The strata should be mutually exclusive: every element in the population must be assigned to only one stratum. The strata should also be collectively exhaustive: no population element can be excluded.

Simple random sampling:

In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population). Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, and each subset of k individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of k individuals.


A technique used for participants to measure an object based on set characteristics. Scales are close-ended questions that require one of the offered responses as the respondent’s answer.

Statistical analysis:

Is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.


Telephone Interview:

Is where participants are asked survey questions over the telephone. Telephone interviewing is usually conducted from a central telephone interviewing facility.

Television Rating (TVR aka Gross Rating Point) = (reach * frequency):

One TVR represents 1% of a specified television audience or universe seeing an advert at least once. (At extremes, television ratings can be made from either many people seeing an advert only once, or just a few people seeing an advert many times.)

Tracking Studies:

A study that provides periodic updating of company and competitor performances on criteria other than sales.

Taste Test:

A test where participants evaluate the taste of a product, either on its own or compared with other products. Taste tests are often conducted "blind" where brand names, packaging and other identifying items are removed. Taste tests are usually conducted at a central location, although they can be carried out in participants' homes.

Tracking (Study):

A study that provides periodic updating of company and competitor performances on criteria other than sales.

Topics – Discussion Guide:

An outline of the subjects to be discussed during group discussions and/or in-depth interviews.


Usage & Attitude:

Research projects that aim to describe users (and non-users) of a product, together with their attitudes towards the product.

Unstructured Questionnaire (Unstructured Questions (aka Open-Ended Questions):

Questionnaire containing questions that do not have any suggested alternatives and respondents answer in their own words.


Verbatim – Verbatim Statement:

A reproduction of all of a respondent’s opinion of an object or concept word-for-word, without any omissions, abbreviations or interpretations by the interviewer.


The extent to which a research process is accurate and reflects actual market conditions (ie it is free from systematic error).



Is a single mailing or group of interviews conducted at about the same time. A research study or survey may consist of several waves.

Web Site Survey (aka HTML Survey):

is a questionnaire that is based on a web site. Potential respondents are invited to participate in the survey (by a banner advert or other message) and then they are given a link to a satellite site where they complete a questionnaire. The survey is completed on line and respondents can be offered anonymity.

Web Research (Survey):

A questionnaire that is based on a web site. Potential respondents are invited to participate in the survey (by a banner advert or other message) and then they are given a link to a satellite site where they complete a questionnaire. The survey is completed online and respondents can be offered anonymity.


A process of determining how much advertising is necessary to reach your target audience. There are three factors to consider. How many impressions will your ad receive or how often is it viewed. Reach measures how much of the target audience has been exposed to the advertisement. Finally, frequency measures the how often the target audience was exposed to your ad.

Word Association Technique:

A form of projective technique where participants are presented with a list of words and, after each word, they are asked to say the first word that comes into their minds.